Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) are pluripotent stem cells isolated from an inner cell mass of early-stage embryo-blastocysts. ES cells have a high differentiation potential. At the same time, while ES cells are undifferentiated, they have the potential to infinitely replicate, making them highly attractive subjects for cell therapy and regenerative medicine.
Nuclear stem cell factor (GNL3) is essential in the early stages of embryogenesis and is localized to the nucleus and nucleolus in a cell-cycle-dependent manner. Studies have shown that in addition to Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog, many other factors required for pluripotency have been identified, including Sall4, DAX1, Essrb, TBX3, TCL1, Rif1, NACC1 and Zfp281. These pluripotency factors form a complex transcriptional regulatory network in embryonic stem cells for simultaneous regulation.