ERK1/2 (MAPK1/MAPK3, p44/42MAPK) are members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family (MAPKs) that are commonly located in the cytoplasm. They act as catalysts in the phosphorylation of serine/threonine and are negatively regulated by the bispecific (Thr/Tyr) MAPK phosphatase family (called DUSP or MKP) and MEK inhibitors (such as U0126 and PD98059).
When cells are stimulated by mitogens, growth factors, or cytokines, the MAPKKK→MAPKK→MAPK cascade is initiated. MEK1 (MAP2K1) and MEK2 (MAP2K2) will then phosphoprylate the activation cylce residues Thr202/Tyr204 and Thr185/Tyr187 repsectively, which in turn activates ERK1/2. Phosphorylated ERK1/2 transduce signals from cell surface receptors to the nucleus – acting on transcription factors such as p90RSK (RPS6KA1), Elk-1, c-myc, c-fos, c-jun, ATF, and NF-kB – to facilitate the transcription and expression of certain genes that are closely related to cell proliferation and division. Hence, ERK1/2 are important markers in cancer diagnosis and treatment.
Phospho-ERK1/2 Antibody Duo
KO-validated MAP2K Antibodies