Endoplasmic Reticulum Marker
The P4HB gene encodes a protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) that catalyzes both the formation of disulfide bonds and isomerization between or within molecules of secreted proteins. To achieve the natural conformation, this process takes place in the endoplasmic reticulum, so P4HB is often used as an ER marker. Studies on the oxidative folding mechanism indicate that molecular oxygen can oxidize the ER protein Ero1, and Ero1 can oxidize PDI through a disulfide bond. After this activity, PDI catalyzes the folding of proteins to form disulfide bonds.
Nuclear Membrane Marker
EMD protein is a widely expressed integrin present in the nuclear inner membrane. It contains a LEM domain and is capable of binding to the barrier self-integrating factor (BAF) and laminin (Lamin A and Lamin B), which plays an important role in nuclear function by regulating gene expression through binding to other transcription factors. EMD protein mutations can cause Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD), which is characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakening.
KO-validated P4HB Antibody