The nucleosome consists of an octamer composed of four histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) and a DNA entangled with 147 base pairs. The core of the histones constituting the nucleosome are roughly the same, but the free N-terminus can be subjected to various modifications.
Endoplasmic Reticulum Marker
The P4HB gene encodes a protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) that catalyzes both the formation of disulfide bonds and isomerization between or within molecules of secreted proteins. To achieve the natural conformation, this process takes place in the endoplasmic reticulum, so P4HB is often used as an ER marker. Studies on the oxidative folding mechanism indicate that molecular oxygen can oxidize the ER protein Ero1, and Ero1 can oxidize PDI through a disulfide bond. After this activity, PDI catalyzes the folding of proteins to form disulfide bonds.
Ebola outbreaks are considered rare, but they do emerge every several years and can be quite lethal. This summer, two Ebola outbreaks took place in Africa—one in the Democratic Republic of Congo and another in North Kivu—collectively affecting over 150 patients and killing 80 to date. Although the first confirmed Ebola epidemic was in 1976, we still lack licensed therapeutics to prevent and control Ebola’s spread. Vaccine development is in the works, but the lack of an approved treatment is a chilling reminder that we may not know enough about the virus. With the recent outbreaks in mind, we sought to summarize everything you should know about Ebola, its biology, and the current progress of vaccine development.
ERK1/2 (MAPK1/MAPK3, p44/42MAPK) are members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family (MAPKs) that are commonly located in the cytoplasm. They act as catalysts in the phosphorylation of serine/threonine and are negatively regulated by the bispecific (Thr/Tyr) MAPK phosphatase family (called DUSP or MKP) and MEK inhibitors (such as U0126 and PD98059).
The interest in using primary cells for cell-biology research has gained prominence in recent years due to factors such as cell line contamination (Kaur G, 2012). What made primary cells lose their popularity in the first place is partly due to the rigorous and arduous process associated with primary-cell cultivation. So why is primary-cell cultivation so difficult?
When I began my science journey as an undergrad, research seemed rigorous, but reassuringly straightforward in its tenets. Observe, question, hypothesize. Predict, test, analyze. And repeat. It made perfect sense to me that if you followed this protocol and remained unbiased in the process, great discoveries were sure to come.
DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) is an important family of enzymes that catalyze and maintain DNA methylation in epigenetics. The enzymes play a key role in the regulation of gene expression and genomic imprinting/development.
While the scientific community is enveloped in a reproducibility crisis (and debates as to whether there is one), there are certainly steps life science researchers can take to ensure more reproducible outcomes. We can start by limiting self-bias and improving reporting standards. But first, what is reproducibility and why is there a crisis?
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is an intermediate filament protein that is mainly found in astrocytes found in the central nervous system. It is also expressed in chondrocytes, fibroblasts, myoepithelial cells, lymphocytes, and hepatic stellate cells.
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, also known as ErbB-1 or HER1) is a member of the ErbB family. This family includes four tyrosine receptor kinases: HER1 (ErbB1, EGFR), HER2 (ErbB2, NEU), HER3 (ErbB3), and HER4 (ErbB4). The ErbB family plays an important regulatory role in the process of cell physiology.
EGFR is distributed along the surface of cells including mammalian epithelial cells, fibroblasts, glial cells, keratinocytes, and more. The EGFR signaling pathway plays an important role in physiological processes such as cell growth, proliferation and differentiation. The loss of function in tyrosine kinases such as EGFR, or the abnormal activity/cell localization of key factors in related signaling pathways can cause tumor, diabetes, immunodeficiency and cardiovascular diseases.