Recent Posts

Another Way to Kill Bad Cells: Recent Work in Pyroptosis

Posted by Kin Leung on Jun 30, 2022 12:00:00 PM

Once upon a time when I was a fledgling science nerd in high school, I started learning about the process of apoptosis, which remains to this day the most studied form of cell death in various functions including organismal development and defense against cancer. As an immunologist-in-training, I also learned about the classical complement pathway that the immune system uses to destroy infected cells, and also necrotic cell death or necroptosis (which is full of really gross pictures if you dare to Google it). Of course, I learned about autophagy in graduate school and really appreciate its utility in normal physiology and disease, while very recently I read about ferroptosis as yet another programmed cell death (PCD) pathway. Right around when the Nobel Prize was awarded to recognize the elucidation of PCD, pyroptosis came about as a novel PCD pathway that is continuing to gain steam in its clinical relevance. It seems logical for cells and organisms to have redundant systems in place to clear away damaged and malignant cells before a health crisis can emerge if the cell evades the primary route of apoptosis.


Why Protein Structure is a Big Deal

Posted by Kin Leung on Jun 24, 2022 12:00:00 PM

My first experience in a basic research laboratory was a structural biology project, in which we were attempting to solve the structure of a nervous system protein known as myelin basic protein (MBP). As a rookie undergraduate scientist at the University of California, I had great mentors who taught me everything, from how to purify recombinant proteins from bacteria to doing library work to understand what had been done before so I could build upon it. I also learned how to use an electron microscope (EM) to gather structural data. MBP was an interesting challenge as it had multiple isoforms due to alternative splicing, and generally behaved like a random coil. 1 The major function of MBP is to take advantage of its highly positive charge to compact myelin in higher organisms, with research over the years suggesting it may have some capacity to form alpha helices, although atomic-resolution structures have not yet been reported. MBP has also been reported as a biomarker in autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. 1

A Path To Effective Precision Therapeutics For Alzheimer’s Disease

Posted by Kin Leung on Jun 17, 2022 12:00:00 PM

Before my grandmother passed, she had been battling severe dementia for a very long time, which made it difficult in many ways to have conversations with her. It would take several minutes for her to process who I was, and then it would seem like she would remember me and my family, but she would still have to ask for clarification several times even after we had answered her queries. I am grateful that she is in a better place now, but her challenges in the final years of her life deepened my empathy for people who suffer from dementia, and those who take care of them.


ABclonal in Action: Autophagy as a Therapeutic Target

Posted by Kin Leung on Jun 10, 2022 12:00:00 PM


Every now and then when I get hungry, I joke that my stomach is about to digest itself. For the longest time, human science was unaware that our cells could literally eat itself (or more precisely, parts of itself) as well! First described in the 1960s by Christian de Duve (who won the Nobel Prize for discovering the lysosome), the term autophagy derives from Greek words combined to mean “self-eating” and describes a process by which the cell degrades large components and organelles in a distinct mechanism. 1-3 The phenomenon was not studied extensively until the 1990s, when Yoshinori Ohsumi performed a series of groundbreaking experiments to determine the underlying mechanisms of autophagy, an achievement for which he was awarded the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Ohsumi’s work has led to an explosion of research that has precipitated a greater understanding of the role played by cellular digestion, degradation, and recycling pathways in human health and disease.

Traffic Management: The Indispensable Vesicular Transport System

Posted by Kin Leung on Jun 3, 2022 12:00:00 PM

When I taught high school biology, a favorite part of the curriculum was cellular structures and functions. I set up an activity suggested by other experienced biology teachers that was based on the “Cell City,” a learning analogy where students would create an artwork of a city with the mitochondrion as a power plant and a vacuole as a lake. (Figure 1) I wish I saved their very creative projects, but I distinctly remember one group used the Chicago Transit Authority’s elevated train system map to represent the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a very clever use of the analogy and a nod to city pride. It was also the first time these students really thought about vesicular transport, although they didn't fully understand its importance.

Plant Power: Plant Chemicals and Proteins for Human Health

Posted by Kin Leung on Jun 1, 2022 2:13:47 PM

When I was growing up in Hong Kong, and even after I came to the United States, my parents and grandparents would periodically give me ginseng beverages and soups, which was not always pleasant due to the bitter taste. As a result, I don’t think I really appreciated the benefits of ginseng, both scientifically confirmed and perceived. It is fun and informative to read about the myriad studies of natural plant extracts and how they can improve our well-being. Many folks like to drink herbal teas or use plant-derived supplements such as aloe vera lotions, so maybe this is good incentive to grow more of these beneficial plants such that they can provide health products as well as some clean oxygen for us to breathe!

Everything You Need to Know About Tumor Immunology and CCR8

Posted by Kin Leung on May 26, 2022 11:40:53 AM

With a background in both immunology and cancer biology, I’ve always had a fascination with the interplay between the body’s immune system and any tumors that might pop up. Originally, it made sense that the immune system would actively seek out and destroy cancerous cells, but the emerging consensus is that the interactions between cancers and host immunity is far more complex. In addition to growing new blood vessels and reprogramming metabolic processes, there appears to be some imbalance between avoiding immune cells while also promoting tumor-infiltrating inflammatory cells to promote its growth. 1 (Figure 1) Trying to dissect this apparent contradictory relationship between tumors and host immunity remains a hot topic.

No Rash Decisions: A Novel Treatment For Genetic Skin Disorders

Posted by Kin Leung on May 20, 2022 12:00:00 PM

Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, I have been washing my hands with vigilance to prevent the spread of germs. As a result, the skin on my hands have become calloused on some parts and mostly dry, with cuts and slight bleeding on occasion. I thought this was inconvenient, but when I learned about children with a rare genetic skin disease, I stopped feeling sorry for myself and dug a bit deeper into their plight. After all, my skin issues are just due to excessive hand washing (which everyone should be doing anyway!); these poor kids have to live with this painful disease, known as dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa, for their entire lives.

Designer Genes: What's Next For CRISPR?

Posted by Kin Leung on May 13, 2022 12:00:00 PM

Towards the end of my doctoral research, I first heard the rumblings of an acronym termed “CRISPR” that was starting to gather momentum. By the time I earned my doctorate, the applications that were discussed in both theory and in practice accelerated to the point that, while I didn’t fully understand the mechanism of the factors involved, I was certain that the discovery and re-engineering of this prokaryotic phenomenon would eventually be recognized with a Nobel Prize. Less than a decade after their first publications on the topic, 1, 2 Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer Doudna were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry “for the development of a method for genome editing,” which sounds a lot less important than it actually is!


Don't Get Burned: Be Aware of Melanoma and Skin Cancer

Posted by Kin Leung on May 6, 2022 12:00:00 PM

Many of the most popular vacation destinations are in warm, sunny climates like Hawaii or Southern California, and there are larger human populations where people can actually go outside without having to put on a sweater. With the warm, comfortable weather comes exposure to the sun. Our sun, of course, is the center of the solar system, the constant supplier of natural energy on Earth, and at the same time, a dangerous source of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. While enjoying the warmth of the sun, we also need to protect ourselves from UV and the maladies it could cause.



Why the Circadian Rhythm Matters In Health

Posted by Kin Leung on Apr 27, 2022 12:00:00 PM

In March 2022, the United States Senate approved the Sunshine Protection Act, which would make Daylight Savings Time (DST) permanent starting in November of 2023. There was still some healthy debate over whether Americans should accept Standard Time versus DST as their new permanent or keep the current system of “spring forward, fall back.” Regardless of whether we will have DST forever, there is broad consensus that the clock switch every March and November is disruptive to our sleep patterns and our circadian rhythms.

Whether to save energy, increase night-time Trick-or-Treat hours on Halloween, get those few extra minutes of sun to squeeze in the last innings of a Little League or high school baseball game, or just to normalize our sleep patterns, even a seemingly obscure issue like switching between standard time and DST is tied to our health and well-being in our society. And this is why we have to consider how sleep and the circadian rhythm can affect our physiology.


More Than a Feeling: The Science and Applications of Sensory Receptors

Posted by Kin Leung on Apr 22, 2022 12:00:00 PM

The 2021 Nobel Prize in Physiology of Medicine was awarded jointly to David Julius, of the University of California at San Francisco, and Ardem Patapoutian, a neuroscience researcher at the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California. Working independently, Julius and Patapoutian discovered the key receptors (TRPV1, TRPM8, Piezo1, and Piezo2) in our bodies that sense heat, cold, and touch. Their work not only helps us to understand how we perceive and adapt to the surrounding world, but also paves the way for drug discoveries that target a wide range of diseases, including chronic pain, respiratory disease, and cancer.


Why You Should 5S Your Lab

Posted by Kin Leung on Apr 15, 2022 12:00:00 PM

Have you ever entered a lab where it looks like a disaster area? It may not have happened after an actual centrifuge accident or explosion, but you can tell that the lab needs a makeover in every sense of the word. Some cases are on the extreme end, such as this lab at Georgia Tech that was an unfortunate victim of negligence, but for the most part it may be just a messy neighbor who needs a gentle reminder to take a moment and clean up their bench for the greater good. (Figure 1)


The Cytoskeleton: Its Functional Importance in Cancer Research

Posted by Allen Zheng on Apr 8, 2022 12:00:00 PM

Cancer remains one of the most prevalent and deadly diseases affecting humanity. According to the Centers For Disease Control, cancer was the second leading cause of death in 2020 for Americans behind heart disease. The American Cancer Society projects at least 600,000 deaths due to cancer each year, despite the fact that mortality continues to decrease each year. The majority of these deaths are from advanced cancer, which are cancers that do not respond well to treatment and therefore cannot be cured. It is when the advanced cancer progresses to a point where it can escape the primary tumor site, a process known as metastasis, that the prognosis becomes grim.

Exploring the p38-MAPK Signaling Pathway

Posted by Kin Leung on Apr 1, 2022 12:00:00 PM

When I was an aspiring (much younger) scientist, one of the challenges was finding quality antibodies to accommodate our research group’s high-throughput Western blotting platform 1 while studying signaling pathways in cancer cell lines. When I got into marketing, I learned about ABclonal’s high-quality, high-specificity, and high-affinity antibody products. I really wish that I had access to these products when I was doing my thesis research! With a team of passionate, capable scientists supporting these quality products, I was thrilled at the opportunity to be part of this company and to help spread ABclonal’s brand to the scientific community.

Lab Member of The Year: Dr. F. Xavier Ruiz

Posted by Hannah Flaherty on Feb 11, 2022 12:00:00 PM

In November 2021 we hosted a Lab Member of the Year contest. This contest allowed for various members of the research community to be highlighted for their contributions to their respective labs. At the end of it all Dr. Francesc X. "Xavi" Ruiz Figueras, an assistant research professor at Rutgers' Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, took first place and became ABclonal's Lab Member of the Year.

Dr. Ruiz Figueras is a highly skilled scientist who has made significant scientific contributions to the fields of enzymology and structural biology studying the structure and function of human and viral proteins, especially HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and human aldo-keto reductases, with an emphasis on catalysis and inhibition for drug discovery1. In his spare time he enjoys playing basketball, reading, and spending time with his family. Currently, he is reading a book about philosophy, which he feels has applications to living during these pandemic times. He believes we should take whatever the life lessons we can take from this book in order to hopefully be more resilient.

We sat down with Dr. Ruiz to discuss his lab life at Rutgers, his current research, and what he is looking forward to researching in the future. 

The 3CLpro as a Potential Target for the Intervention of COVID-19

Posted by Edward Li, Ph.D on Jan 11, 2022 12:57:34 PM

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has raised global health concerns. As case numbers continue to climb, there is an urgent need for an active drugs against SARS-CoV-2. The development of new drugs is time-consuming and costly, and the safety of new drugs is paramount. Therefore, the strategy of drug repurposing represents one of the fastest approaches to have an active drug to fight SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic.

As a matter of fact, in silico repurposing approaches have found increasing popularity during the COVID-19 epidemic [1], especially with the great breakthrough achieved using 3CLpro as a target to screen drugs. By the end of 2021, the FDA has authorized the first oral antiviral drug Paxlovid, produced by Pfizer, to treat COVID-19. Due to that much of the scientific and clinical work on drug repurposing or drug screening against SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 is still ongoing, in this blog we will review the latest progress on the potential targets, including 3CLpro, for the drug discovery or intervention of COVID-19.

Cyclins and The Cell Cycle

Posted by Cheryl Cheah on Dec 17, 2021 12:00:00 PM

The cell cycle is a series of phases that takes place in a cell as it grows and divides. The cell spends most of its time in interphase. During this interphase the cell grows, replicates its chromosomes, and prepares for cell division. Once the cell leaves interphase, it will undergo the process of mitoses and start divining in order to create daughter cells. These new daughter cells will then enter their own interphase and begin a new round of the cell cycle. The cell cycle and its cues are of the utmost importance, because without the cues the cells can either multiply continuously, forming masses, or will not multiply. These cues are cyclins which controls the cell cycle progression.

The Role of Tumor Microenvironments in Cancer Development & Treatment

Posted by Fanyun Fang on Dec 3, 2021 1:00:00 PM

The tumor is an abnormal tissue mass formed when cells divide and grow excessively within the body. Tumors can be benign (not cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign tumors may become larger but do not spread to nearby tissue or other parts of the body. Malignant tumors, on the other hand, can spread nearby to tissue and can also be transmitted to other parts of the body through the blood and or lymphatic system.1 But we are no strangers to tumors and how the develop.

On the other hand, many of us aren’t as familiar with a tumor’s environment. Tumor progression is profoundly affected by the subtle interaction of tumor cells with immune and non-immune cells within their environment. In particular, the interactions with the immune cell component of a tumor are fundamental in determining whether primary tumors are eradicated, metastasized, or established by dormant micro metastases.3 The environment that a tumor grows in is also much more complex than one would think because of its highly variable cell composition, large number of proteins, and structures involved in tumor formation.

This being said, tumor microenvironment includes:
• Heterogeneous populations of cancer cells
• A variety of resident and osmotic host cells
• Secretion factors
• Extracellular matrix proteins

Interleukin Family Overview

Posted by Eva Volckova on Nov 19, 2021 12:00:00 PM

Interleukins are a group of small signaling molecules, and a type of cytokine. They play a vital role in the body’s immune response by activating and deactivating immune cells. Recently, interleukins have gained visibility as a target to help treat COVID-19, and the WHO has recommended giving IL-6 inhibitors to patients with severe cases. Additionally, because of its widespread impact on the body, the interleukin family has gained popularity as drug targets over the last few years.

The Importance of CD Antigens in Drug Discovery

Posted by Cheryl Cheah on Nov 5, 2021 12:00:00 PM

CD antigens have played a significant role in both diagnosis and treatment for several diseases ranging from autoimmune diseases to cancer. CD antigens are often used as drug targets in drug discovery and as biomarkers in diagnosis because they are both highly specific and are located at the surface of the cells to target different to identify and investigate cell surface molecules.

DNA Damage & Repair and its Therapeutic Potential

Posted by Eva Volckova on Oct 29, 2021 10:30:00 AM

Since DNA was first discovered by researchers, decades of work have been done to understand its importance as it is the code of life itself. While DNA is the cornerstone of life, it is not immune to damages, and as so it is vital for DNA to repair itself for normal cell function to be maintained. Though, DNA is not always able to repair itself and this leads to some diseases such as various cancers. Fortunately, DNA repair pathways are capable of being tools to provide therapies to combat these diseases.

COVID-19: 5 Aspects to Understand

Posted by Dennis Miao on Apr 26, 2021 3:00:00 PM

Having been over a year since COVID-19 was officially declared a pandemic, we here at ABclonal have had the chance to compile and explore a wide range of information, resources, and breakthroughs related to the novel coronavirus through our blogs. Below, we've organized and selected five recommended pieces of reading related to COVID-19, covering topics including asymptomatic cases, the different detection methods (PCR vs. antibody testing), as well as a one-year-mark review of the impact of COVID-19.

Epigenetics: Manipulating Gene Expression

Posted by Jiarui Wang on Apr 20, 2021 3:30:00 PM


To start, put yourself in a hypothetical situation: you have an identical twin brother who was secretly transferred to another family when you were less than a year old. His new family was poor, and your family was rich and therefore the environment in which you grew up was much better than his. After 50 years, by chance, you both happen to meet and it turns out that you look quite different from one another and are in different states of health; he is short and is suffering from heart disease, while you are tall, healthy, and are training to run a marathon. So, what was it that made you two so different, in light of the fact that your genetic materials are completely identical?

5 Things You Need to Know About Antibodies in Research

Posted by Dennis Miao on Apr 20, 2021 12:59:01 PM

As a cornerstone of the body’s immune response, antibodies can provide significant data to support scientists’ research. Antibodies are used in a multitude of applications in research, including but not limited to: western blot (WB), immunoprecipitation (IP), immunofluorescence (IF), immunohistochemistry (IHC), chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), and flow cytometry (FC). If you're looking to learn more about the various types of antibodies, their differences (ie. rabbit vs. mouse), and their uses in research, we've got you covered below with a collection of curated blogs from our ABclonal Knowledge Base:

The Impact of COVID-19: A Year in Review

Posted by Dennis Miao on Apr 12, 2021 3:30:00 PM

It has now been over a year since March 2020, when the World Health Organization determined that the growing spread of COVID-19 would be officially characterized as a global pandemic. The year that followed challenged humanity with a public health crisis on a scale that few could even imagine, with far-reaching social and economic impacts still being felt across the globe. And yet, this past year also brought out the best in many of us, with medical professionals diligently fighting the pandemic on the front lines and researchers collaborating to progress our global recovery. Owing to the relentless work of researchers making breakthroughs in vaccine research, it appears that the long road to recovery has finally begun.


5 Essential Tips You Need to Know for the Lab

Posted by Dennis Miao on Apr 6, 2021 10:00:00 AM

As a dedicated supplier of research reagents, we're passionate about making sure that your experiments run as smoothly and efficiently as possible. From our ABclonal Knowledge Base, we've compiled a list of helpful articles that address common issues and difficulties that you may run into while conducting your lab experiments, including ELISAs, measuring cell proliferation, western blotting, and casting SDS-PAGE gels. If you're looking for advice, troubleshooting tips, or recommended procedures, we've got you covered:

Transcriptional Regulation of Myogenic and Metal Homeostasis Genes

Posted by Dennis Miao on Feb 1, 2021 3:53:38 PM

On January 12, 2021, we had the privilege of hosting Dr. Teresita Padilla-Benavides, an Assistant Professor of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry at Wesleyan University in Middletown, CT, to present our first webinar of the new year. Her webinar discussed her research on the differential mechanisms for transcriptional regulation of myogenic and metal homeostasis genes. If you missed the live session of the webinar, we’ve got you covered here with a link to a recording of the webinar, as well as a recap below:


Webinar Recap: Monoclonal Antibodies in Cancer Therapy

Posted by Dennis Miao on Dec 3, 2020 12:00:00 PM

For the second installment in our ABclonal Webinar Series, we had the privilege of inviting Dr. Clarke Gasper, our Business Development Scientist, to share his insights on the production and development of monoclonal antibodies for cancer therapy. If you were unable to attend the live session or would like to review some of Dr. Gasper’s key points, we’ve got you covered with a recap of his lecture below.


Necroptosis: The Inflammatory Counterpart of Good Ol’ Apoptosis

Posted by Kashyap Gayathri on Nov 25, 2020 5:27:12 PM

A Bird’s Eye View of Necroptosis

Necroptosis is a type of regulated necrotic death driven by defined molecular pathways. Regulated necrosis regulates programmed cell death. Necroptosis is at the center of the pathophysiology of several clinically-relevant disease states, including myocardial infarction and stroke, atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, pancreatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Necroptosis results in necrosis-like morphological changes, such as cell swelling, plasma membrane pore formation, and membrane rupture. It also requires co-activation of receptor-interacting protein (RIP) 1 and RIP3 kinases. Necrosome is a complex formed by RIP1, RIP3 and Fas-associated proteins with death domain (FADD). Several studies in the preclinical stage have demonstrated that targeting necrosome can have variable effects on progression of tumors, indicating that it is largely cell-type or context dependent.

Autophagy: A Natural Detox

Posted by Kashyap Gayathri on Nov 18, 2020 3:00:00 PM

Autophagy can be understood as ‘self-eating’. In simple terms, it is a vitally important cleansing mechanism carried out by the cells in our body. It brings about the degradation of the cytoplasmic contents within membrane bound vesicles called lysosomes.


Ferroptosis as a New Type of Inflammatory Programmed Cell Death

Posted by Bryent Lee on Nov 12, 2020 1:00:00 PM

When it comes to programmed cell death (PCD), apoptosis is usually the first process that comes to mind. However, there is a new type of inflammatory PCD discovered in 2012, known as ferroptosis, that is genetically and biochemically distinct from other PCD.1


Antibodies Served With a Side of Phospho-Specificity

Posted by Kashyap Gayathri on Nov 11, 2020 12:00:00 PM

Anyone who is remotely interested in biology, or has perhaps scrolled through fitness websites to get in shape, has come across the word "protein". There is, however, much more to proteins than simply being a key player in maintaining active lifestyles. Proteins are ubiquitous in the cells of the body and are the driving force for key cellular processes. In order for proteins to carry out their duties, they need to be well-armed to execute their functions. This process of making the protein competent is achieved through specific post translational modifications (PTMs). The star of the PTMs is a cellular process called phosphorylation. The conventional methods adopted for quantifying phosphorylation are highly labor intensive. The development of phospho-specific antibodies has allowed for a huge sigh of relief from researchers due to their reputation of being quick, and detecting only phosphorylated forms of proteins in a complex mixture of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms.


A Closer Look at the Fundamentals of Recombinant DNA Technology

Posted by Bryent Lee on Oct 27, 2020 4:09:38 PM

The advancement of recombinant DNA technology in recent years has drastically changed the world of research by controlling the expressions of target genes. Recombinant DNA combines genetic material from different sources, creating sequences that are unique and new to the genome. The DNA sequences used in the construction of recombinant DNA molecules can originate from any species, such as human, fungal, bacterial, and plants. 1


2020 Nobel Prize: Winners Announced for Award in Medicine

Posted by Dennis Miao on Oct 7, 2020 8:17:19 PM

This has been an incredibly exciting past few days in the world of scientific research. For those unfamiliar, the 2020 Nobel Prize winners are set to be announced this week; as of today’s writing on October 7th, 2020, three sets of award winners have already been unveiled in medicine, physics, and chemistry. Today, we’ll take a closer look at the backgrounds and distinguished research of the laureates in medicine.


FDA OKs Abbott's COVID-19 Rapid Test Kit

Posted by Dennis Miao on Sep 17, 2020 12:00:00 PM

In a press release on August 26th, 2020, Abbott Laboratories announced that they were issued an emergency use authorization (EUA) by the FDA for their new, rapid point-of-care COVID-19 antigen test. Branded as the “BinaxNOW COVID-19 Ag Card”, the test is unique compared to the more prevalent molecular-based detection tests for COVID-19 in that it utilizes a lateral flow assay, similar to traditional over-the-counter pregnancy tests. Contained in a portable, credit-card sized device, Abbott claims that the test can deliver results in as little as 15 minutes, representing a significant reduction in time compared to RT-PCR-based tests that have turnaround times on a scale of hours rather than minutes.


Webinar Recap: Neuroendocrine Mechanisms of Feeding Behavior

Posted by Dennis Miao on Sep 2, 2020 8:10:47 PM

For the first installment of our ABclonal Webinar Series on August 26th, we had the privilege of inviting Dr. Yong Xu of the Baylor College of Medicine to share his research on neuroendocrine mechanisms for appetite regulation and their implications on conditions such as obesity. If you were unable to attend the live session or would like to re-watch to review some of Dr. Xu's key points, we've got you covered with a link to a recording of the webinar and Q&A here, as well as recap of his lecture below.


5 Ways to Stay Productive While Waiting for Experiments to Run

Posted by Dennis Miao on Aug 19, 2020 7:50:57 PM

With labs across the country in various stages of reopening, it can be tough to transition right back into the physical office after months of working from home. Throughout your typical day in the lab, you may find that there are many instances where you've got a few odd minutes (or even hours) here and there. Oftentimes, these periods are used to scroll through your phone or catch up on social media. Here are five suggestions on how to productively fill in those gaps while you're waiting for your experiments to run.

ELISA Troubleshooting Guide

Posted by Dennis Miao on Aug 18, 2020 6:33:59 PM

When it comes to running a successful ELISA, there can be many common issues that must be addressed in order to obtain meaningful results. From our years of experience in producing and supplying ELISAs for a diverse range of targets, we’ve narrowed down four of the most common issues that can arise during your ELISA and have provided troubleshooting tips for each.

5 Excellent Science Podcasts to Soundtrack Your Workday

Posted by Dennis Miao on Aug 3, 2020 6:11:43 PM

Whether it's at your home office, at the bench, or during your commute to work, putting on a podcast in the background can be an engaging and enriching way to help keep your mind stimulated. Here are 5 excellent science podcasts to help you get started on crafting your perfect workday playlist.


Pricing in a Pandemic: Gilead Announces Remdesivir Pricing

Posted by Dennis Miao on Jul 22, 2020 1:35:25 PM

During these past few months, the push to discover effective treatments and vaccines against COVID-19 has largely overshadowed another vitally important aspect of drug development: drug pricing. Let’s take a look at a recent example from pharma giant Gilead, who recently announced the pricing for its promising COVID-19 treatment remdesivir.


Featured Product Weekly: SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Antibody

Posted by Dennis Miao on Jul 8, 2020 5:28:42 PM

In direct support of the fight against the novel coronavirus and the world's effort to understand more about the mechanisms of the COVID-19 disease, we're proud to announce the arrival of our SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Antibody.


Featured Product Weekly: SARS-CoV-2 Sandwich ELISA Kits

Posted by Dennis Miao on Jul 1, 2020 12:59:42 PM

Over these past few months, we here at ABclonal have been working diligently to continue supplying necessary reagents to researchers, clinicians, and companies worldwide to facilitate their efforts during the COVID-19 pandemic. In direct support of that goal, we’re proud to introduce our new, comprehensive line of SARS-CoV-2 ELISA kits.


The Origins of the Beloved Guinea Pig in Research

Posted by Dennis Miao on Jun 24, 2020 6:20:46 PM

On a bit of a lighter note this week, let’s take a dive into the origins of the beloved Guinea pig and their often overlooked role in the development of some major breakthroughs in the field of medical research.

A Closer Look at Asymptomatic COVID-19 Cases

Posted by Dennis Miao on Jun 22, 2020 3:01:18 PM

As we’ve seen over these past few months, a SARS-CoV-2 infection can result in widely different manifestations and severities in the subsequent course of the disease it causes, COVID-19. Many of those infected by SARS-CoV-2 experience a mild to severe illness, with symptoms that include fever, shortness of breath, cough, and fatigue that appear roughly 2-14 days after exposure to the virus. On the other hand, some individuals infected with the virus will remain asymptomatic. 

Protein and Metabolite Screening to Predict COVID-19 Severity

Posted by Zofia Qiu on Jun 10, 2020 1:39:58 PM

The novel coronavirus has spread rapidly around the world, with confirmed infection cases having reached more than six million. The average mortality rate of those infected is estimate to be around 6%. The sudden outbreak and particularly rapid spread of the novel coronavirus have required researchers worldwide to double down on investigative efforts against COVID-19 in order to develop a treatment and vaccine as soon as possible.

A Closer Look at COVID-19 Treatment and Vaccine Development

Posted by Dennis Miao on Jun 3, 2020 5:21:53 PM

With troves of information and developments coming out daily from the various companies and researchers developing vaccines and potential treatments for COVID-19, it can certainly feel overwhelming to keep track of everything. This compilation of information should help you catch up on, and navigate recent developments in the fight against COVID-19.

Breaking the Bad: An Introduction to Proteinase K

Posted by Dennis Miao on May 27, 2020 3:44:20 PM

As you may have surmised from the title of this article, Proteinase K (also known as protease K or endopeptidase K) shares many functional similarities to the protagonist of the iconic TV show, Breaking Bad. Much like Walter White, Proteinase K is incredibly versatile in its applications, while remaining relatively unassuming and overlooked at times. Unlike the chemistry teacher gone rogue, however, its properties can be channeled for good.

5 Strategies for Scientists Working From Home

Posted by Dennis Miao on May 20, 2020 1:06:28 PM

In recent days, there have been developments and progress towards initial re-opening of states across the country. For many of us, however, returning to work will be a more gradual process and will still involve some time at home as companies, localities, and the country as a whole work towards resuming normal life while maintaining social distancing and mitigating chances for secondary waves of infection. Thus, it’s still incredibly important to keep in mind these 5 strategies for working effectively, and healthily, at home:


COVID-19 Detection Methods: Nucleic Acid vs. IgM/IgG Antibody Tests

Posted by Dennis Miao on May 7, 2020 6:20:55 PM

There is no doubt that the coronavirus is the hottest topic as of late, having dominated media headlines and having fundamentally changed the way that we live and work. As the outbreak of the coronavirus continues to worsen across the globe, the demand for COVID-19 detection is therefore ever-increasing.

Understanding Antibodies and Their Applications in Research

Posted by Dennis Miao on May 7, 2020 6:20:12 PM

ABclonal has developed over 12,000 high quality antibody products since its inception in 2011. With this significant and time-tested experience, you can rest assured that ABclonal is relentless in its focus on the production and development of quality antibodies. Let’s further our understanding of antibodies by taking a more in-depth look at their structure, function, and uses in research.

4 Reasons to Use ABscript II RT-qPCR Kit

Posted by Lingyi Tong on Mar 31, 2020 5:21:21 PM

The current COVID-19 public health crisis is unprecedented in the U.S. and worldwide. Everyone, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, medical workers, and biology researchers are busy doing whatever they can to fight against this epidemic. To help them handle the emergency and buy time for the suffering patients, ABclonal developed ABScript II One Step RT-qPCR Probe Kit (RK20407), a ready-to-use kit that can be used to quantify RNA with outstanding performance. Here, we would like to introduce the kit as well as the four reasons that you should use it.

FDA Allows Distribution of COVID-19 Test Kit Before EUA

Posted by Lingyi Tong on Mar 27, 2020 5:56:35 PM

The current coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is an unprecedented public health emergency in the U.S. Even though medical professionals are working around the clock to conduct testing, the problem still remains to be a shortage of diagnostic kits. Aimed to improve the limited diagnostic capability and to fight against the COVID-19 public health crisis, the FDA issued several emergency policies since late February.

A Complete Guide to Handcasting SDS-PAGE Gels

Posted by Lingyi Tong on Feb 28, 2020 4:43:07 PM

Do you find yourself using a lot of SDS-PAGE gels for Western blotting and Coomassie staining? Or have your pre-cast gels been stored for too long and expired? Why not try to cast your own SDS-PAGE gels to save some budget for the lab, and produce just as valid of results. Today, we would like to share five tips for hand-casting SDS-PAGE gels, as well as the protocol and formulation to do so.

5 Notes For Autophagy Detection With LC3

Posted by Lingyi Tong on Feb 25, 2020 12:14:05 PM

Autophagy is a natural mechanism in which the cell removes and degrades cellular components with autolysosomes. It is a popular research area because autophagy is related to many physical and pathological processes. The 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology is granted to Yoshinori Ohsumi for his contribution in autophagy. In autophagy studies, LC3-I and LC3-II detection is a must-have experiment to track the autophagy process. Therefore, we would like to share five important notes for quantifying autophagy with LC3.

A Thorough Introduction of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway

Posted by Lingyi Tong on Jan 30, 2020 5:51:47 PM

The Wnt signaling pathway, an evolutionarily conserved signal transduction pathway, is widely present in invertebrates and vertebrates. The Wnt signaling pathway plays a crucial role in early embryonic development, organogenesis, tissue repair, and many other physiological processes. The mutation of key proteins involved in this pathway can lead to abnormal activation of signals, and potentially induces the occurrence of cancer. In 1982, R. Nusse and H.E. Varmus identified the first Wnt gene from a mouse mammary tumor and named it Int1 (integration 1). Continued research found that the mouse Int and Drosophila Wingless (Wg) genes are homeotic, and thus combined their names to Wnt. H.E. Varmus himself also won the 1989 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his great contribution in oncology.

6 Ways to Prevent Poor Western Blot Results

Posted by Daniel Bouzas on Nov 29, 2019 3:06:50 PM

Western blot results can either be the highlight of the day, or a scientist's worst nightmare. Unfortunately, it usually turns out to be the latter of the two. After a long hard day of work, nothing can ruin the day more than seeing your western blot results come out blotchy and unreadable. Luckily, there are many ways to prevent and fix a messy blot to ensure you get the best results possible, rather than ending up with something horrific like the image below. To avoid these situations, I have outlined some tips to keep in mind before going through with your western blot test. 

2019’s Top 5 Breakthroughs in Breast Cancer Research & Treatment

Posted by Daniel Bouzas on Oct 31, 2019 3:31:35 PM


Every year about 12% (one in eight) women across the U.S. will be diagnosed with breast cancer, with an estimated 41,760 expected to succumb to this deadly disease by the end of this year alone. However, new milestones in research is helping us understand more about how we can further improve treatment for those currently battling through breast cancer in hopes of increasing the overall survival rate. Thankfully, every year since 2000 we have seen a 7% decrease in reported incidents, and in 2019, milestones in how we treat different types of breast cancer show hope for this number to increase in the future. With breast cancer awareness month coming to an end, we wanted to shine a light on this year's biggest developments in research and available treatments.

How to Create the Perfect Elevator Pitch

Posted by Daniel Bouzas on Oct 14, 2019 5:45:00 PM


Have you ever felt unprepared for a job interview or presentation? Everyone has at one point, but while some might crack under pressure due to that nervous feeling, others will go through with it with no sweat. How do they do it? By keeping an elevator pitch in mind as a guide for what to say and when to say it.

We want you to go in and out of every meeting feeling confident in your performance, so below are some crucial tips to keep in mind when developing an elevator pitch of your own.

The Symphony of Life - Turning Genetic Coding into Music

Posted by Daniel Bouzas on Sep 26, 2019 8:09:30 PM

Humans have been into music ever since the first group of cavemen started banging sticks on rocks and stone walls, so I guess you could say we got music engraved in our genes. However, as researchers would find out later, there could be some hint of truth to that statement. Thanks to advances in the way we read genetic coding, your DNA can be converted into listenable frequencies.

The Struggling Bio-Graduate Guide To Finding The Right Path

Posted by Daniel Bouzas on Sep 24, 2019 1:45:02 PM

When you’re just starting or nearing the end of your college career, you are either feeling prepared for the adult world ahead, or you still feel lost about what are the next steps in your professional career. If you’re reading this, I’m guessing you might fall in the latter, and I’m sure you might have questions regarding the many paths you can take in this biotech industry. For some jobs, the road to success is a clear one, but for the biotech industry, it could be a lot harder to decide what direction to take due to the many options that are laid out for you. For this blog post, I wanted to provide a one-stop guide answering FAQs that I gathered from graduates going through the same struggles as you are.

A Quick Guide to Trim Down Your Grant Proposal

Posted by Michele Mei on Aug 29, 2019 3:04:52 PM

It’s a relatively new world for scientists. Up until the 2000s, research funding increased steadily before reaching a plateau and dropping with sequestration budget cuts. Nowadays, scientists spend a great deal of time fighting for grants, rather than actually doing research. It’s an interesting, but sobering reality: as you progress in your science career, you may (or already do), find yourself spending more and more time planning and writing grants.

4 Methods for Measuring Cell Proliferation

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Aug 29, 2019 3:04:23 PM

Cell proliferation assays have a wide range of applications in scientific research – from testing drug reagents to the effect of growth factors, from testing cytotoxicity to analyzing cell activity. So, what are cell proliferation assays? Cell proliferation assays typically detect changes in the number of cells in a division or changes in a cell population.

4 Methods for Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody Production

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Aug 29, 2019 2:58:16 PM

In a previous article, we explored the differences between rabbit and mouse antibodies as well as the biology behind rabbit antibody superiority. But after choosing the host, the type of technology used to produce the antibody is important too. Here, we explore some of the rabbit monoclonal antibody technologies available in the current market.

Reproducibility Crisis: Fallacies to Be Wary of and Ways to De-Bias

Posted by Michele Mei on Aug 29, 2019 2:57:57 PM

While the scientific community is enveloped in a reproducibility crisis (and debates as to whether there is one), there are certainly steps life science researchers can take to ensure more reproducible outcomes. We can start by limiting self-bias and improving reporting standards. But first, what is reproducibility and why is there a crisis?

6 Science Podcasts to Listen to this Summer

Posted by Michele Mei on Jul 31, 2019 11:40:43 AM

Podcasts are perfect for busy, but intellectually curious people. It’s like reading, but instead of fixing your eyes to a page or screen, you can run or cook or simply relax while the podcast delivers fascinating, funny, new information straight to your brain. It’s basically like learning by osmosis! Whether you’re working in lab or you have these few months off to relax, I curated a list of science podcasts to keep you company both bench-side and poolside.

The Value of Large-Scale Sequencing Projects

Posted by Michele Mei on Jul 31, 2019 11:39:29 AM

Large-scale sequencing projects have great potential to provide a wealth of knowledge to scientists and the public. Perhaps the most celebrated project of this nature is the Human Genome Project (HGP) which was completed in 2003. For many, the multi-billion endeavor was considered a “moonshot” for biology, but with its successful completion (99% of the euchromatic genome sequenced with 99.99% accuracy) came the launch of many other large-scale sequencing projects such as the Cancer Genome Atlas (2005) or more recently, the Earth Bio-genome Project (2018). The introduction of large-scale quantitative methods, such as next-generation sequencing, have also made these projects feasible.

A Quick Guide to Antibody Validation

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Jul 31, 2019 1:43:10 AM

As one of the most common reagents in biology and medical research, there are more than 350,000 commercially produced antibodies available for research and clinical applications. However, the quality of the commercially available antibodies varies from vendor to vendor. Different suppliers have different protocols for validating antibodies and some researchers might want to verify the product before using them on precious samples. Here are some of the factors to examine when it comes to antibody quality.

Tumor Immunology Targets

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Jul 31, 2019 1:42:45 AM

A healthy immune system requires a series of checkpoints to ensure self tolerance and prevent damage to other tissues during immune response. Binding of costimulatory signal transduction molecules (such as CD28, ICOS, GITR) on T cells to their receptors (such as CD80/CD86, ICOSL, GITRL) on antigen presenting cells (APCs) may contribute to T cell activation. However, in some states, inhibitory signals of T cell activation and response occur during the involvement of T cell receptors. These signals are generated by proteins involved in immune checkpoints (eg, PD-1, CTLA-4, TIM-3, and LAG3). Usually PD-1 and CTLA-4 immunological checkpoint proteins are upregulated in T cells infiltrating tumors and bind to their respective ligands, PD-L1 (ligand B7-H1)/PD-L2 (ligand B7- DC) and CD80/86, and down-regulate T cell responses. Immunological checkpoint ligands are often upregulated in cancer cells as a means of evading immune detection. Therefore, immunotherapy by blocking immunological checkpoint protein activation of anti-tumor immunity has become a popular research subject for cancer therapy.

4 Scientist Couples and Their Love Stories

Posted by Michele Mei on Jul 31, 2019 1:42:05 AM

The cliché of the pragmatic and lonely scientist gets old. Although scientists are highly analytical, their emotional range is not as limited as the media and stereotypes portray. In their work, scientists must be logical and methodical, but that doesn’t necessarily carry over to life and relationships.

Why is Primary-cell Cultivation So Difficult?

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Jul 31, 2019 1:41:40 AM

The interest in using primary cells for cell-biology research has gained prominence in recent years due to factors such as cell line contamination (Kaur G, 2012). What made primary cells lose their popularity in the first place is partly due to the rigorous and arduous process associated with primary-cell cultivation. So why is primary-cell cultivation so difficult?

What Scientists Should Know About Research Funding

Posted by Michele Mei on Jun 29, 2019 3:57:40 PM

It’s no secret that scientific research is becoming less of a priority to the federal government. For two decades, research and development (R&D) funding has remained stagnant or dropping, despite increases to the overall federal budget. With a growing population of scientists entering the field, a lack of funding generates a hyper-competitive and stressful funding climate. For those looking to secure funding for the first time, or simply curious about how science is funded, this post serves as an introductory guide.

Can You Guess How Much Darwin Worked?

Posted by Michele Mei on Apr 21, 2019 7:34:18 PM

Being perpetually busy has become a status symbol in academia –and it’s counterproductive.

In this day and age, we are trained to believe that the more you work, the more you get done, and the further ahead you get. In academia, researchers place a lot of pressure on themselves to work around the clock. Whether it’s experiments, teaching, papers, or grants, it seems like there’s always more to be done. Consequently, the lack of work-life balance, work-induced stress, and burnout has become a pervasive problem in academia.

G2/M Cell Cycle Checkpoint Antibody

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Apr 9, 2019 3:16:32 PM

The G2/M cycle checkpoint prevents cells with genomic DNA damage from entering mitosis (M phase). The main safeguards conferred by this checkpoint is to ensure that DNA is free of major lesions or replication errors, and there are enough organelles, metabolites, and other cellular cargo in the parent cell prior to division so the daughter cells can be adequately provided for once mitosis is complete. Failures at this checkpoint are associated with aberrant cellular growth and cancer progression.


The Cyclin B-CDK1 complex plays an important regulatory role during the G2 transition, at which time CDK1 is maintained inactivated by the tyrosine kinases Wee1 and Myt1. When the cells enter the M phase, the kinase Aurora A and the cofactor Bora act together to activate PLK1, which in turn activates the activity of phosphatase CDC25 and downstream CDC2, effectively driving the cells into mitosis. When the DNA is damaged, it activates the DNA-PK/ATM/ATR kinase and eventually inactivates the Cyclin B-CDK1 complex. Stopping cell cycle progression allows the cell enough time to attempt to repair any DNA or cellular damage, and if all else fails, to induce apoptosis to prevent risk to the entire organism.


ABclonal Technology provides a wide selection of cell cycle checkpoint antibody products for every phase of a cell's life. Please see a small sample of our offerings below.

Why doesn’t the heart get cancer?

Posted by Michele Mei on Mar 29, 2019 1:41:43 PM

In some ways, the heart is quite a vulnerable organ. Cardiac complications such as heart attack, cardiac arrest, or heart failure are common. But interestingly, of the many diseases that may affect the heart, cancer is not one of them. For example, we often hear about cancer in the prostate, breast, colon, skin, etc., but rarely of the heart. How is this vital organ different?

G1/S Cell Cycle Checkpoint Antibody

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Mar 29, 2019 11:09:52 AM

The G1/S cell cycle checkpoints control whether eukaryotic cells enter the S phase (synthesis phase) of DNA synthesis after having properly completed the G1 phase to ensure the cell has enough energy and resources to begin DNA replication. Two cell cycle kinase complexes, CDK4/6-Cyclin D and CDK2- Cyclin E, work together to relieve the inhibition of dynamic transcriptional complexes containing retinoblastoma protein (Rb) and E2F. In cells undefined during the G1 phase, hypophosphorylated Rb binds to the E2F-DP1 transcription factor and forms an inhibitory complex with HDAC, thereby inhibiting downstream key transcriptional activities. Clear entry into the S phase is achieved by continuous phosphorylation of Rb by Cyclin D-CDK4/6 and Cyclin E-CDK2, which separates the transcription factor E2F from the inhibitory complex and allows transcription of the gene required for DNA replication. After the growth factor disappears, the expression level of cyclin D is down-regulated by down-regulation of protein expression and phosphorylation-dependent degradation. Without a proper G1/S checkpoint, the cell could arrest or potentially undergo aberrant processes that could lead to disease states such as cancer.

New and Old Techniques to Study Protein-DNA Binding

Posted by Michele Mei on Mar 11, 2019 12:28:22 AM

Proteins known as transcription factors play a crucial role in gene regulation by activating, enhancing, and even silencing a gene’s expression.  Many textbooks and resources compare transcription factors (TFs) to something like an on/off switch for gene transcription. However, it is a bit more complicated than just turning gene expression on or off. Various properties (e.g. binding affinity, specificity, and genetic variance of binding sites) impact the binding of TFs to DNA, thereby altering gene expression. To study transcription and how it is regulated, scientists study TF-DNA interactions on a genome-wide level. 

Embryonic Stem Cell Markers

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Feb 26, 2019 11:00:00 AM

Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) are pluripotent stem cells isolated from an inner cell mass of early-stage embryo-blastocysts. ES cells have a high differentiation potential., which means that they have the capacity to develop into whatever cell type the body needs depending on the signals received by the ES cell. At the same time, while ES cells are undifferentiated, they retain the potential to infinitely replicate, making them highly attractive and renewable subjects for targeted cell therapy and regenerative medicine.

CD Molecule Antibodies

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Feb 12, 2019 11:51:28 AM

Cluster of differentiation, or CD molecules, are cell surface markers that are used for identification of cell types in pathology and other bioscience disciplines. The expression levels of CD markers may increase or decrease (or disappear altogether, at least to undetectable levels) when cells (for example, leukocytes, red blood cells, platelets, and vascular endothelial cells, etc.) differentiate into new and different lineages. Depending on the CD marker, the expression level may identify a phenotype for different segments of cells, such as when they become active or diseased. Most CD molecules are transmembrane proteins or glycoproteins, including extracellular regions that bind a ligand or opposing receptor, transmembrane regions to anchor the CD marker into the cell, and cytoplasmic regions that may confer some adaptor or catalytic function. Some CD molecules can also be "anchored" on the cell membrane by means of inositol phospholipids. A few CD molecules are carbohydrate haptens. The study of CD molecules can be used in many basic immunology research fields, such as the relationship between CD antigen structure and function, cell activation pathway, signal transduction and cell differentiation, etc. It can be used clinically for disease mechanism research, clinical diagnosis, disease prognosis, efficacy tracking and treatment, and more. CD molecules such as CD4, CD8, CD25, etc. can be used to identify populations of cells when studying samples by flow cytometry or immunofluorescence.

Managing a Scientific Literature Review: Tricks I Learned

Posted by Michele Mei on Feb 3, 2019 5:33:36 PM

The Literature Review

Literature reviews are some of the most widely read and highly cited papers in academia, but writing one can be a daunting task, requiring an expert understanding of the topic at hand. To write a review article is so much more than simply summarizing recent studies published in the field. The most valuable literature reviews, which I find myself going back to again and again, are those that:

The Next Cancer Model

Posted by Michele Mei on Jan 21, 2019 7:46:19 PM

The Problem with Cancer Models

Very few cancer drugs succeed in clinical trials, despite showing promise in the lab. Treatments that may work on animal models, cell lines, or even patient-derived xenografts often do not have the same efficacy in patients. The underlying reason is tumor environments within the human body are far more complex than in research models. For example, the tissue structure (histological complexity) and genetic heterogeneity of an animal model is different than that of humans. Even cell lines and patient-derived xenografts, which are human-derived, have their own pitfalls such as genetic mutations and animal-specific tumor evolution, respectively. Due to the inability to reproduce human tumor environments, many drugs fail clinical trials after lengthy and costly development.

Key Targets in the Hippo Pathway

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Jan 15, 2019 12:32:35 PM

The Hippo signal is very conservative in evolution. It regulates organ size and tissue stability by regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis, and stem cell renewal. The core process of Hippo signaling is a kinase tandem process, Mst1/2 and Sav1 form a complex, phosphorylate and activate Lats1/2; Lats1/2 kinase then phosphorylates and inhibits transcriptional coactivators Yap and Taz. Yap and Taz are the most important effectors downstream of the Hippo pathway. Upon dephosphorylation, Yap and Taz translocate to the nucleus and interact with TEAD1-4 or other transcription factors (such as CTGF) to induce gene expression, thereby initiating cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis.

4 Successful Writing Habits for Scientists

Posted by Michele Mei on Jan 7, 2019 12:33:37 PM

As scientists, writing is a major component of the job, yet having “no time to write” is a common complaint echoed amongst PhD candidates, post-docs, and professors alike. On top of experiments, data analyses, and taking/teaching courses, writing can easily end up on the back burner. But publishing papers, like it or not, is critical for a career in science. Rather than setting intimidating goals like publishing some number of papers within a year or publishing in a high impact journal, it is more feasible and beneficial to first develop good writing habits, which will in the long run increase productivity.

Top Life Science Discoveries of 2018

Posted by Michele Mei on Dec 26, 2018 10:25:00 AM

Every year, scientists make fascinating breakthroughs which broaden, yet challenge, our understanding of life and the world around us. Just as we start to understand a biological process, like how heredity or aging works, a new discovery can flip it on its head or open a whole new avenue for research. As 2018 comes to an end, it’s the time for roundups of top products, gifts, movies, tech, etc. We decided to put our own spin on it with the top life science discoveries of the year.

Seasons Greetings from ABclonal

Posted by Michele Mei on Dec 25, 2018 6:22:22 PM

Communicating Science to Non-Scientists

Posted by Michele Mei on Dec 8, 2018 6:48:52 PM

These days major debates center around scientific information – from climate change, gene-editing to vaccinations – yet, despite the data-driven nature of science, there are deeply divided opinions regarding these hot topics. For researchers, it might be frustrating to witness scientific findings being misinterpreted or exaggerated. But it’s not surprising that so much science is misunderstood. Too many scientists still reside within their own research bubbles, which is counterproductive.

High-Dilution GAPDH Monoclonal Antibody

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Dec 4, 2018 10:35:13 AM

The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, or GAPDH for short), is a multifunctional, indispensable enzyme found in all cells. The generally known function of GAPDH is to assist in carbohydrate metabolism as a key player in glycolysis, but there are studies demonstrating its role in the nucleus as well. 


GAPDH is a constitutively expressed housekeeping protein, and GAPDH mRNA levels and protein levels are often used as loading controls in experiments that quantify target-specific expression changes. Recent studies have elucidated the role of GAPDH in apoptosis, gene expression through its possible activities as a transcription factor, and nuclear transport. As both a metabolic protein as well as one that might play a role in cytoskeletal reorganization, GAPDH activity is intricately tied to tumorigenesis. GAPDH may also play a role in neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, although many researchers do use GAPDH as a control, this protein needs to be appreciated for its myriad other functions as well!


ABclonal Technology's GAPDH recombinant rabbit monoclonal antibody is a human-specific antibody that can be used with a high dilution ratio of 1:2560000. As a highly-stable antibody product, this means that you can perform numerous Western blotting experiments over a long period of time using a small quantity of antibody, as well as in other experiments to study the functions of GAPDH. Take advantage of this robust, cost-effective antibody product in your research today!

Can the $4.7 billion Earth BioGenome Project Sustain Itself?

Posted by Michele Mei on Nov 29, 2018 6:33:00 PM

In the last What’s Hot in Life blog post, we discussed how next generation sequencing (NGS) is used as a basis for understanding disease. This week I wanted to talk about DNA sequencing again, but in a completely different context. On November 1st, scientists launched an ambitious project to sequence all 1.5 million complex species on Earth. Their purpose? To save biodiversity.

Scientists Identify Novel Regulator for LINE-1 Using ABclonal Antibody

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Nov 28, 2018 4:22:23 PM

Long-interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) are genetic components found in higher eukaryotes. They are retrotranposons, meaning that they are transcribed into mRNA and then translated into proteins that act as a reverse transcriptase. The reverse transcriptase makes a copy of the LINE DNA which can then be integrated into the genome at a new site. The only active LINE in humans is LINE-1. It has been associated with oncogenesis and Haemophilia A, a diseased caused by insertional mutagenesis.

Golgi Apparatus Markers

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Nov 6, 2018 12:15:49 PM

Although underappreciated, the Golgi apparatus is indispensable to normal cellular function by ensuring proteins are properly folded and sorted, and to direct diverse functions including autophagy. Disruptions to proper Golgi function can lead to many disease states, including diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. The study of vesicular markers, including Golgi markers, is critical to our understanding of this amazing organelle's function in keeping the cell and organism healthy. Clarifying the mechanisms by which proteins are properly folded, sorted, quality controlled, and transported will prove important as more effective therapies are developed against a diverse array of human diseases.


We have previously explored the function of organelle markers USO1, GOLGA2, and GOLM1 but not how the corresponding antibodies can be applied in research. Organelle marker antibodies are common tools in cell biology research. They can be used with immunofluorescence technology to observe the morphological structure of organelles and understanding the subcellular localization of proteins. In turn, they help to explore the biological functions/role of organelle proteins in normal or disease models. These markers can also be used in Western blot (WB) experiments examining organelle extracts: as a positive control to determine whether the organelle is successfully extracted.


You can see some examples of ABclonal Technology's Golgi marker antibodies below. These are only a handful of the huge selection of targets that you can use to supplement your cutting-edge research!

How NOT to Choose Your PhD Supervisor

Posted by Michele Mei on Nov 5, 2018 12:00:00 PM

Pursuing a PhD is undoubtedly one of the most challenging chapters in a researcher's career. For the first time, as an early career scientist, you must juggle research, writing, teaching, and your own personal life (yes, you should still have one). A PhD is definitely exhausting, but given the right guidance and support it can be an enjoyable and exciting time too. 

Endoplasmic Reticulum Marker

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Oct 30, 2018 9:43:46 PM

Organelle marker antibodies are common tools in cell biology research. They can be used with immunofluorescence technology to observe the morphological structure of intracellular membrane-bound organelles and for understanding the subcellular localization of proteins. In turn, they help to explore the biological functions/role of organelle proteins in normal or disease models. These markers can also be used in Western blot (WB) experiments examining organelle extracts, as well as providing a positive control to determine whether the organelle is successfully extracted.

We focus today on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) markers. The ER is a network of membrane-bound organelles that are the initial destination for proteins that are targeted for other organelles, the plasma membrane, or are to be secreted outside the cell. Proper ER function includes accepting the nascent protein as it is being translated by ribosomes, and ensuring that the protein is properly folded so it does not lead to accumulation of unusable cellular cargo. Disruptions in ER or the unfolded protein response can lead to cell death or various disease states such as cancer or neurodegenerative disorders. 

ABclonal provides many antibody products for the study of ER and Golgi markers, as well as exosome markers. Please read our blog on the vesicular transport system and its role in cellular homeostasis, and check out some of our ER marker antibodies below. We are honored to be part of your journey to better understanding vesicular transport and the fight against human diseases!


Choosing the Right RNA Lib Prep Kit for Your Transcriptome Library

Posted by Dapeng Sun, Ph.D. on Oct 30, 2018 5:56:54 PM

1. Determine the mRNA capture type you need

Gene Editing and Antibody Validation

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Oct 30, 2018 3:59:17 PM

The scientific community operates on a self-correcting model that relies on repetition and replication. However, according to a 2016 survey by Nature, more than 70% reported to have failed to replicate experiments from another scientist, more than 50% reported failure in replicating his/her own experiment. Out of the 1,576 scientists surveyed, 906 were from biology or medicine disciplines. 

ChIP-grade CTCF Antibody

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Oct 23, 2018 11:43:50 AM

CTCF (CCCTC Binding Factor) is a highly conserved transcription factor that regulates transcriptional activation, transcriptional repression, insulator function, and imprinted control regions (ICRs).

How Next Generation Sequencing Changed Disease Research

Posted by Michele Mei on Oct 22, 2018 6:00:00 PM

Therapies targeting the function of a small intestinal protein, SGLT1, might have the potential to treat diseases like obesity, diabetes, heart failure, and associated death—and we have next generation sequencing to thank.

CREB1 Antibody: Featured in Nature Communications

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Oct 16, 2018 10:18:32 AM

CREB1 is a basic leucine zipper domain (bZIP) transcription factor that activates a target gene through a cAMP response element. As a key transcriptional regulator, CREB1 plays a role in a variety of cellular responses by mediating a number of physiological stimuli. CREB1 is expressed in many tissues and plays an especially important regulatory role in the nervous system by promoting neuronal survival, driving precursor proliferation, neurite outgrowth, neuronal differentiation and more. In addition, CREB1 signaling is involved in the learning and memory functions of many organisms. CREB1 is capable of selectively activating many downstream genes through interaction with multiple dimerization partners. Phosphorylation of CREB1 at the serine 133 site involves multiple signaling pathways, such as Erk, calcium flux (Ca2+), and stress signaling. Some of the kinases involved in CREB1 phosphorylation include p90RSK, MSK, CaMKIV, and MAPKAPK-2.

But Who Decides the Nobel Prize Winners?

Posted by Michele Mei on Oct 5, 2018 12:00:00 PM

Announcements for this year’s Nobel winners started off with prizes in Physics, Chemistry, and Physiology or Medicine. While congratulations are in order for the newly minted laureates, a bit of controversy is also stirring.

Autophagy Marker

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Oct 2, 2018 10:50:00 AM

Autophagy is a catabolic process in which autophagic lysosomes, known as autophagosomes, degrade most cytoplasmic contents, including entire organelles like damaged mitochondria in protection of the host cell and organism. Autophagy is usually activated in the absence of nutrients and is associated with many physiological and pathological processes, including growth, differentiation, neurodegenerative diseases, infections and tumors. Light chain 3 (LC3) is a widely recognized autophagy marker. There are three isoforms of the LC3 protein (LC3A, LC3B, and LC3C) in mammals. They undergo post-translational modifications during autophagy. The LC3 protein is first cleaved by Atg4 at its carboxy terminus immediately after synthesis to produce LC3-I, which is localized in the cytoplasm. During autophagy, LC3-I is modified and processed by a ubiquitin-like system including Atg7 and Atg3 to produce LC3-II with a molecular weight of 14 kD and localized to autophagosomes. The magnitude of the LC3-II/I ratio can be used to assess the level of autophagy.


ABclonal Technology is pleased to offer numerous antibody products to study targets within the autophagy pathway, be it the normal functions within the pathway, the autophagic cell death pathway, or disruptions to autophagy that may drive disease progression. Many of our products have been peer reviewed by satisfied customers, including those who have used them to generate quality data for scientific publications. Please see some examples of our products below, and happy experimenting!

ABclonal Lecture Series: Koch Institute at MIT

Posted by Dapeng Sun, Ph.D. on Sep 26, 2018 11:50:00 AM

ABclonal Technology hosted its second lunch and learn at the Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research at MIT, the second event of its lecture series. The lunch and learn, led by ABclonal’s senior principal scientist, focused on rabbit monoclonal antibody technologies, its advantages and development.

RNA Methyltransferase Antibody Featured in Cell and Nature Journals

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Sep 25, 2018 12:20:19 PM

RNA methyltransferases such as METTL3, METTL14, WTAP, and VIR can catalyze the methylation of the N6 position of adenylate (M6A) and are opposed by demethylases which include FTO and ALKBH5.

Featured Product Weekly: Histone Modification

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Sep 18, 2018 10:25:41 AM

The nucleosome consists of an octamer composed of four histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) and a DNA entangled with 147 base pairs. The core of the histones constituting the nucleosome are roughly the same, but the free N-terminus can be subjected to various modifications.

Featured Product Weekly: ER and Nuclear Membrane Markers

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Sep 11, 2018 10:58:30 PM

Endoplasmic Reticulum Marker

The endoplasmic reticulum is a membrane-bound organelle that is critical to the proper sorting and folding of proteins. Improperly folded proteins are normally allowed to refold into their functional conformation, and if not possible to repair, these unfolded proteins are directed to be degraded to prevent damage to the cell. The P4HB gene encodes a protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) that catalyzes both the formation of disulfide bonds, which form between cysteine residues to stabilize protein structure, and isomerization between or within molecules of secreted proteins. To achieve the natural conformation, this process takes place in the endoplasmic reticulum, so P4HB is often used as an ER marker. Studies on the oxidative folding mechanism indicate that molecular oxygen can oxidize the ER protein Ero1, and Ero1 can oxidize PDI through a disulfide bond. After this activity, PDI catalyzes the folding of proteins to form disulfide bonds.

7 Minute Bio-Update: How Ebola Works

Posted by Michele Mei on Sep 10, 2018 9:30:00 AM

Ebola outbreaks are considered rare, but they do emerge every several years and can be quite lethal. Although the first confirmed Ebola epidemic was in 1976, we still lack licensed therapeutics to prevent and control Ebola’s spread. Vaccine development is in the works, but the lack of an approved treatment is a chilling reminder that we may not know enough about the virus. With the recent outbreaks in mind, we sought to summarize everything you should know about Ebola, its biology, and the current progress of vaccine development.

Featured Product Weekly: MAPK/ERK Pathway Antibody

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Sep 4, 2018 6:05:05 PM

The extracellular signal-regulated kinases, or ERK1/2 (MAPK1/MAPK3, p44/42MAPK), are signaling molecules belonging to the mitogen-activated protein kinase family (MAPKs) that are commonly located in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. In concert with various other molecules in the signaling cascade acting under different surface or intracellular receptors, ERK1/2 act as catalysts in the phosphorylation of serine/threonine and are negatively regulated by the bispecific (Thr/Tyr) MAPK phosphatase family (called DUSP or MKP) and specific inhibitors to MEK activity (such as U0126 and PD98059).

4 Famous Scientists and How They Struggled

Posted by Michele Mei on Aug 29, 2018 10:00:00 AM

When I began my science journey as an undergrad, research seemed rigorous, but reassuringly straightforward in its tenets. Observe, question, hypothesize. Predict, test, analyze. And repeat. It made perfect sense to me that if you followed this protocol and remained unbiased in the process, great discoveries were sure to come.

But then I learned about the other steps in between. Steps like grant-writing, worrying about publishing and impact factors, getting your mentor to actually respond, and struggling to troubleshoot experiments. Twitter’s PhD community seems to relate.

Featured Product Weekly: DNA Methyltransferase Antibody

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Aug 28, 2018 9:00:00 AM

DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) is an important family of enzymes that catalyze and maintain DNA methylation, a common marker in the epigenetic silencing of target genes. The enzymes play a key role in the regulation of gene expression and genomic imprinting/development.

Featured Product Weekly: Astrocyte Markers

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Aug 21, 2018 10:00:00 AM

Astrocytes are specialized glial cells with distinct morphology that are found in the central nervous system, playing a role in brain and nerve cell development and the formation of synapses. Mature astrocytes respond to many stress signals and are responsible for many essential complex functions in the healthy brain, allowing the maintenance of proper homeostasis through ion flow, signaling, and the recycling of neurotransmitters. Astrocytes that are irregularly activated may result in various neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease. 

Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is an intermediate filament protein that is mainly found in astrocytes. It is also expressed in chondrocytes, fibroblasts, myoepithelial cells, lymphocytes, and hepatic stellate cells.

Featured Product Weekly: KO-validated ErbB Antibodies

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Aug 14, 2018 9:45:00 AM

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, also known as ErbB-1 or HER1) is a member of the ErbB family. This family includes four tyrosine receptor kinases: HER1 (ErbB1, EGFR), HER2 (ErbB2, NEU), HER3 (ErbB3), and HER4 (ErbB4). The ErbB family plays an important regulatory role in the process of cell physiology, and is among the most studied receptor tyrosine kinases and signaling molecules in the history of biochemistry and cell biology.

EGFR is distributed along the surface of cells including mammalian epithelial cells, fibroblasts, glial cells, keratinocytes, and more. The EGFR signaling pathway plays an important role in physiological processes such as cell growth, proliferation and differentiation. Upon ligand binding (for example, EGF interacting with the extracellular domain of EGFR), the ErbB receptor tyrosine kinases will homodimerize or heterodimerize, allowing autophosphorylation of cytosolic tyrosine residues and the recruitment of downstream signaling molecules.

The loss of function in tyrosine kinases such as EGFR, or the abnormal activity/cell localization of key factors in related signaling pathways, such as the p38 MAPK pathway, can cause multiple cancer types, diabetes, immunodeficiency and cardiovascular diseases. In modern medicine, typical treatment strategies include targeting the tyrosine kinase activity of the ErbB receptor with small molecular inhibitors, or humanized antibodies that will target cells that have overexpressed the ErbB receptor, such as using an anti-HER2 therapy to treat breast cancer.

Featured Product Weekly: Golgi Protein Antibody

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Aug 7, 2018 7:24:21 PM

Although underappreciated, the Golgi apparatus is indispensable to normal cellular function by ensuring proteins are properly folded and sorted, and to direct diverse functions including autophagy. Disruptions to proper Golgi function can lead to many disease states, including diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease.

Part of the Golgi protein family, USO1 protein (also known as vesicle docking protein p115) is a peripheral membrane protein that can be used as a Golgi marker. It cycles between the cytoplasm and the Golgi apparatus during interphase. The position of the USO1 protein is regulated by phosphorylation -- dephosphorylated proteins bind to the Golgi membrane and dissociate from the membrane when phosphorylated. This regulated transportation plays an important role in protein localization, secretion, and signal transduction. USO1 protein acts as a vesicle anchor by interacting with the target membrane and keeping the vesicles close to the target membrane. In addition, the USO1 protein interacts with GOLGA2 (GM130) and Giantin to promote endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi transportation. A large part of Golgi-related research is in understanding how to maintain proper Golgi function to prevent and treat human diseases.

Featured Product Weekly: AIFM1 Antibody

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Jul 31, 2018 12:58:57 PM

AIFM1, also known as Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF), is a widely expressed flavoprotein that plays an important role in caspase-independent apoptosis. AIF normally exists in the mitochondrial intermembrane space.

Featured Product Weekly: Lamin Antibody

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Jul 24, 2018 11:53:02 AM

Nuclear lamina is a layer of cross-linked fibrin network that commonly exists in higher eukaryotic cells. It is interior to the nuclear envelope with a fiber diameter of about 10 nm. The nuclear lamina of higher animals are usually composed of three intermediate filament polypeptides – lamins A, B, and C. The nuclear lamina is closely related to the stability of nuclear envelopes, maintenance of nuclear pore location, stabilizing interphase chromatin morphology and spatial structure, chromatin construction, and nuclear assembly.

ABclonal Lecture Series: Sanofi Pasteur

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Jul 23, 2018 1:12:44 PM

 ABclonal Technology began its lecture series at Sanofi Pasteur, located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The lunch and learn event focused on rabbit monoclonal antibodies in the current market, which is one of ABclonal's leading product lines to support biological research.

Featured Product Weekly: GOLM1 Antibody

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Jul 16, 2018 11:09:25 AM

Golgi membrane protein 1 (GOLM1) is a type II Golgi membrane protein discovered in recent years. Although underappreciated, the Golgi apparatus is indispensable to normal cellular function by ensuring proteins are properly folded and sorted, and to direct diverse functions including autophagy. Disruptions to proper Golgi function can lead to many disease states, including diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. GOLM1 is a key protein in ensuring that proteins taken in from the endoplasmic reticulum are properly transported to their final destination in and out of the cell, and also may be involved in responses to viral infection.

The GOLM1 protein expression level increases in a variety of diseases and cancerous tissues. It is especially closely related to liver diseases. Many studies have shown that GOLM1 is more sensitive and more specific than alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, the most specific marker for primary liver cancer and the main indicator for the diagnosis of liver cancer) in the serological diagnosis of liver cancer. GOLM1 is expected to be the serological marker for the early diagnosis of liver cancer. It has also been reported to be highly expressed in patients with viral hepatitis and cirrhosis. The study of GOLM1 and other Golgi markers remains crucial to our understanding of human disease, and offers new avenues to develop more effective targeted therapies to alleviate the burdens of these ailments.

ABclonal Technology at BIOtech Japan 2018

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Jul 15, 2018 9:21:13 PM

Last week, ABclonal Technology set foot on the "Land of the Rising Sun" to attend the 17th International Biotech and Life Sciences Exhibition & Conference. One of our technical sales specialists from the Boston office, Giovanni Musto, joined our colleagues in Japan for the exhibition. Here are some highlights from his trip.

What are the Differences Between Rabbit and Mouse Antibodies?

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Jun 15, 2018 5:46:20 PM

Antibodies are the most commonly used tools in biological research. They are used in various applications such as Western Blot (WB), Immunoprecipitation (IP), Immunofluorescence (IF), Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Two of the most common hosts for producing research antibodies are rabbits and mice, but what are the differences between rabbit and mouse antibodies? Which antibody would be best suited for your research?

ABclonal Technology x Immunology 2018

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on May 21, 2018 12:13:45 PM

During the passed weekend, ABclonal Technology had the honor to join esteemed immunologists around the world for the Immunology 2018 conference held in Austin, Texas (go Longhorns). Let's check out some of the highlights.

What Are Exosomes and Why Are They Important?

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on May 5, 2018 2:37:22 PM

Although exosomes were discovered over five decades ago, interest among the scientific community didn’t pique until much later. Specifically, in the last ten years, the number of annual publications about exosomes have almost increased by tenfold (from 1,570 published papers in 2007 to 14,000 in 2017). But what exactly are exosomes and what justifies the frenzy?

Cancer and Metastasis: The Wonders of SNAI1

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Apr 9, 2018 3:25:11 PM

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in the development of embryos and the maintenance of normal human tissue structure and function. Nowadays, more and more studies have shown that cellular plasticity is also regulated by this transition, and EMT is the most critical process in the initial phase of cancer metastasis. 

Genetic Matchmaking: Are We Predetermined to Love Someone?

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Feb 27, 2018 3:33:11 PM

Doesn’t everyone have that one friend or relative who always says “I know someone who will just be perfect for you”? Usually, the claim is based on knowledge of personality and common interests between you and the potential Mr./Mrs. Perfect. However, in the past two decades scientists have suggested a more innate predictor to attractiveness – genetics. More specifically, alleles in the human leukocyte antigens (HLA) genomic region.

Genome Research Features ABclonal's Epigenetic Target Antibodies

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Feb 27, 2018 1:11:29 PM

One of the most important, most studied, yet still unresolved question in life science is “how can DNA (which unfolds to 2-3 meters in length) fit in the nuclei of eukaryotic cells (which is only a few microns in diameter) and regulate genome functions in an orderly fashion?”