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The Role of Tumor Microenvironments in Cancer Development & Treatment

Posted by Fanyun Fang on Dec 3, 2021 1:00:00 PM

The tumor is an abnormal tissue mass formed when cells divide and grow excessively within the body. Tumors can be benign (not cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign tumors may become larger but do not spread to nearby tissue or other parts of the body. Malignant tumors, on the other hand, can spread nearby to tissue and can also be transmitted to other parts of the body through the blood and or lymphatic system.1 But we are no strangers to tumors and how the develop.

On the other hand, many of us aren’t as familiar with a tumor’s environment. Tumor progression is profoundly affected by the subtle interaction of tumor cells with immune and non-immune cells within their environment. In particular, the interactions with the immune cell component of a tumor are fundamental in determining whether primary tumors are eradicated, metastasized, or established by dormant micro metastases.3 The environment that a tumor grows in is also much more complex than one would think because of its highly variable cell composition, large number of proteins, and structures involved in tumor formation.


This being said, tumor microenvironment includes:
• Heterogeneous populations of cancer cells
• A variety of resident and osmotic host cells
• Secretion factors
• Extracellular matrix proteins

Interleukin Family Overview

Posted by Eva Volckova on Nov 19, 2021 12:00:00 PM

Interleukins are a group of small signaling molecules, and a type of cytokine. They play a vital role in the body’s immune response by activating and deactivating immune cells. Recently, interleukins have gained visibility as a target to help treat COVID-19, and the WHO has recommended giving IL-6 inhibitors to patients with severe cases. Additionally, because of its widespread impact on the body, the interleukin family has gained popularity as drug targets over the last few years.

The Importance of CD Antigens in Drug Discovery

Posted by Cheryl Cheah on Nov 5, 2021 12:00:00 PM

CD antigens have played a significant role in both diagnosis and treatment for several diseases ranging from autoimmune diseases to cancer. CD antigens are often used as drug targets in drug discovery and as biomarkers in diagnosis because they are both highly specific and are located at the surface of the cells to target different to identify and investigate cell surface molecules.

DNA Damage & Repair and its Therapeutic Potential

Posted by Eva Volckova on Oct 29, 2021 10:30:00 AM

Since DNA was first discovered by researchers, decades of work have been done to understand its importance as it is the code of life itself. While DNA is the cornerstone of life, it is not immune to damages, and as so it is vital for DNA to repair itself for normal cell function to be maintained. Though, DNA is not always able to repair itself and this leads to some diseases such as various cancers. Fortunately, DNA repair pathways are capable of being tools to provide therapies to combat these diseases.

COVID-19: 5 Aspects to Understand

Posted by Dennis Miao on Apr 26, 2021 3:00:00 PM

Having been over a year since COVID-19 was officially declared a pandemic, we here at ABclonal have had the chance to compile and explore a wide range of information, resources, and breakthroughs related to the novel coronavirus through our blogs. Below, we've organized and selected five recommended pieces of reading related to COVID-19, covering topics including asymptomatic cases, the different detection methods (PCR vs. antibody testing), as well as a one-year-mark review of the impact of COVID-19.


Epigenetics: Manipulating Gene Expression

Posted by Jiarui Wang on Apr 20, 2021 3:30:00 PM

Foreword

To start, put yourself in a hypothetical situation: you have an identical twin brother who was secretly transferred to another family when you were less than a year old. His new family was poor, and your family was rich and therefore the environment in which you grew up was much better than his. After 50 years, by chance, you both happen to meet and it turns out that you look quite different from one another and are in different states of health; he is short and is suffering from heart disease, while you are tall, healthy, and are training to run a marathon. So, what was it that made you two so different, in light of the fact that your genetic materials are completely identical?