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Necroptosis: The Inflammatory Counterpart of Good Ol’ Apoptosis

Posted by Kashyap Gayathri on Nov 25, 2020 5:27:12 PM

A Bird’s Eye View of Necroptosis

Necroptosis is a type of regulated necrotic death driven by defined molecular pathways. Regulated necrosis regulates programmed cell death. Necroptosis is at the center of the pathophysiology of several clinically-relevant disease states, including myocardial infarction and stroke, atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, pancreatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Necroptosis results in necrosis-like morphological changes, such as cell swelling, plasma membrane pore formation, and membrane rupture. It also requires co-activation of receptor-interacting protein (RIP) 1 and RIP3 kinases. Necrosome is a complex formed by RIP1, RIP3 and Fas-associated proteins with death domain (FADD). Several studies in the preclinical stage have demonstrated that targeting necrosome can have variable effects on progression of tumors, indicating that it is largely cell-type or context dependent.

Autophagy: A Natural Detox

Posted by Kashyap Gayathri on Nov 18, 2020 3:00:00 PM

Autophagy can be understood as ‘self-eating’. In simple terms, it is a vitally important cleansing mechanism carried out by the cells in our body. It brings about the degradation of the cytoplasmic contents within membrane bound vesicles called lysosomes.

 

Breaking the Bad: An Introduction to Proteinase K

Posted by Dennis Miao on May 27, 2020 3:44:20 PM

As you may have surmised from the title of this article, Proteinase K (also known as protease K or endopeptidase K) shares many functional similarities to the protagonist of the iconic TV show, Breaking Bad. Much like Walter White, Proteinase K is incredibly versatile in its applications, while remaining relatively unassuming and overlooked at times. Unlike the chemistry teacher gone rogue, however, its properties can be channeled for good.

4 Methods for Measuring Cell Proliferation

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Aug 29, 2019 3:04:23 PM

Cell proliferation assays have a wide range of applications in scientific research – from testing drug reagents to the effect of growth factors, from testing cytotoxicity to analyzing cell activity. So, what are cell proliferation assays? Cell proliferation assays typically detect changes in the number of cells in a division or changes in a cell population.

Why is Primary-cell Cultivation So Difficult?

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Jul 31, 2019 1:41:40 AM

The interest in using primary cells for cell-biology research has gained prominence in recent years due to factors such as cell line contamination (Kaur G, 2012). What made primary cells lose their popularity in the first place is partly due to the rigorous and arduous process associated with primary-cell cultivation. So why is primary-cell cultivation so difficult?

Autophagy Marker

Posted by Panyue (Penny) Hao on Oct 2, 2018 10:50:00 AM

Autophagy is a catabolic process in which autophagic lysosomes degrade most cytoplasmic contents. Autophagy is usually activated in the absence of nutrients and is associated with many physiological and pathological processes, including growth, differentiation, neurodegenerative diseases, infections and tumors. Light chain 3 (LC3) is a widely recognized autophagy marker. There are three isoforms of the LC3 protein (LC3A, LC3B, and LC3C) in mammals. They undergo post-translational modifications during autophagy. The LC3 protein is first cleaved by Atg4 at its carboxy terminus immediately after synthesis to produce LC3-I, which is localized in the cytoplasm. During autophagy, LC3-I is modified and processed by a ubiquitin-like system including Atg7 and Atg3 to produce LC3-II with a molecular weight of 14 kD and localized to autophagosomes. The magnitude of the LC3-II/I ratio can be used to assess the level of autophagy.